Research Papers

2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999

2014

Powis K, Lockman S, Smeaton L, Hughes MD, Fawzi W, Ogwu A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, von Oettingen J, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Vitamin D Insufficiency in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy is not associated with Morbidity, Mortality or Growth Impairment in Their Uninfected Infants in Botswana. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Jul 16. 

Asmelash A, Zheng Y, Kaloustian KW, Shaffer D, Sawe F, Ogwu A, Salata R, Currier J, Hughes MD, Lockman S. Predictors of suboptimal CD4 response among women achieving virologic suppression in a randomized antiretroviral treatment Trial, Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 17

Russell ES, Mohammed T, Smeaton L, Jorowe B, Macleod IJ, Hoffman RM, Currier JS, Moyo S, Essex M, Lockman S. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 21

Wang R, Goyal R, Lei Q, Essex M, De Gruttola V. Sample size considerations in the design of cluster randomized trials of combination HIV prevention. Clin Trials. 2014 Mar 20.

Plank RM, Wirth KE, Ndubuka NO, Abdullahi R, Nkgau M, Lesetedi C, Powis KM, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Shapiro R, Lockman S. Single-Arm Evaluation of the AccuCirc Device for Early Infant Male Circumcision in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 3.

Grinsztejn B, Hosseinipour MC, Ribaudo HJ, Swindells S, Eron J, Chen YQ, Wang L, Ou SS, Anderson M, McCauley M, Gamble T, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Chariyalertsak S, de Melo MG, Mayer KH, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Makhema J, Mills LA, Panchia R, Sanne I, Gallant J, Hoffman I, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano D, Essex M, Havlir D, Cohen MS; the HPTN 052-ACTG Study Team. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trialLancet Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 3

Farahani M., Vable A., Lebelonyane R., Seipone K., Anderson M., Avalos A., Chadborn T., Tilahun H., Roumis Themba Moeti D., Musuka G., Busang L., Gaolathe T., C S Malefho K., Marlink R. Outcomes of the Botswana national HIV/AIDS treatment programme from 2002 to 2010: a longitudinal analysis. The Lancet Global Health. January 2014

Mwafongo A, Nkanaunena K, Zheng Y, Hogg E, Samaneka W, Mulenga L, Siika A, Currier J, Lockman S, Hughes MD, Hosseinipour M; for the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) A5208 Team. Renal events among women treated with tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with either lopinavir/ritonavir or nevirapine: analysis from the AIDS Clinical Trial Group A5208 trial. AIDS 2014 Jan 18.

Boltz VF, Bao Y, Lockman S, Halvas EK, Kearney MF, McIntyre JA, Schooley RT, Hughes MD, Coffin JM, Mellors JW; for the OCTANE/A5208 Team. Low-Frequency Nevirapine (NVP)-Resistant HIV-1 Variants Are Not Associated With Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Without Prior Exposure to Single-Dose NVP. J Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 16.

2013

Zash RM, Ajose-Popoola O, Stordal K, Souda S, Ogwu A, Dryden-Peterson S, Powis K, Lockman S, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Risk factors for mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and unexposed infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Botswana. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec 23

Novitsky V, Bussmann H, Logan A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Okui L, Mmalane M, Baca J, Buck L, Phillips E, Tim D, McLane MF, Lei Q, Wang R, Makhema J, Lockman S, Degruttola V, Essex M. Phylogenetic Relatedness of Circulating HIV-1C Variants in Mochudi, Botswana. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 11

Pramanik Sollerkvist L, Gaseitsiwe S, Mine M, Sebetso G, Mphoyakgosi T, Diphoko T, Essex M, Ehrnst A. Increased CXCR4 use of HIV-1 subtype C identified by population sequencing in patients failing antiretroviral treatment compared with treatment-naïve patients in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Nov 8.

Dryden-Peterson S, Jayeoba O, Hughes MD, Jibril H, McIntosh K, Modise TA, Asmelash A, Powis KM, Essex M, Shapiro RL, Lockman S. Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Risk of Severe Anemia or Severe Neutropenia in HAART-Exposed, HIV-Uninfected Infants. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 23

Moyo S, Lecuyer T, Wang R, Gaseitsiwe S, Weng J, Musonda R, Bussmann H, Mine M, Engelbrecht S, Makhema J, Marlink RG, Baum MK, Novitsky V, Essex M. Evaluation of the False Recent Classification Rates of Multi-Assay Algorithms in Estimating HIV-1 Subtype C Incidence. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Aug 12

Souda S, Gaseitsiwe S, Georgette N, Powis K, Moremedi D, Iketleng T, Leidner J, Moffat C, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Moyo S, Mmalane M, Musonda R, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. No Clinically Significant Drug Resistance Mutations In HIV-1 subtype C Infected Women After Discontinuation Of NRTI-Based Or PI-Based HAART For PMTCT In Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Mar 28

Wang R, Weng J, Moyo S, Pain D, Barr CD, Maruapula D, Mongwato D, Makhema J, Novitsky V, Essex M. Effect of short-course antenatal Zidovudine and single-dose Nevaripine on the BED capture enzyme immunoassay levels in HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar 22.

Novitsky V, Wang R, Rossenkhan R, Moyo S, Essex M. Intra-Host Evolutionary Rates in HIV-1C env and gag during Primary Infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2013 Mar 19.

Rossenkhan R, Macleod IJ, Sebunya TK, Castro-Nallar E, McLane MF, Musonda R, Gashe BA, Novitsky V, Essex M. Tat exon 1 Exhibits Functional Diversity During HIV-1 Subtype C Primary Infection. J Virol. 2013 Mar 13

back to top

2012
Wester, C.W., Stitelman, O.M., Degruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Marlink, R.G., van der Laan, M.J. Effect Modification by Sex and Baseline CD4+ Cell Count Among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Dong, B.J., Zheng, Y., Hughes, M.D., Frymoyer, A., Verotta, D., Lizak, P., Sawe, F., Currier, J.S., Lockman, S., Aweeka, F.T.; for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5208 Team. Nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics (PK) and risk of rash and hepatitis among HIV-infected Sub-Saharan African Women. AIDS. 2012 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Laeyendecker, O., Brookmeyer, R., Mullis, C., Donnell, D., Lingappa, J., Celum, C., Baeten, J.M., Campbell, M.S., Essex, M., de Bruyn, G., Farquhar, C., Quinn, T.C., Eshleman, S. Specificity of four laboratory approaches for cross-sectional HIV incidence determination: Analysis of samples from adults with known non-recent HIV infection from five African countries. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Jan 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Using HIV viral load to guide treatment-for-prevention interventions. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Lockman, S., Sax, P. Treatment-for-prevention: clinical considerations. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Jan 5. [Epub ahead of print]

back to top

2011
Baeten, J.M., Lingappa, J., Beck., I., Freukel, L., Pepper, G., Wald, A., Fife, K., Were, E., Mugo, N., Sanchez, J., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Kiare, J., Farquhar, C., Corey, L., and Celum, C. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Suppressive Therapy with Acyclovir or Valacyclovir Does Not Select for Specific HIV-1 Resistance in HIV 1/HSV-2 Dually Infected Persons. J. Infect. Dis. 203:11-21 (2011).

Bussmann, H., de la Hoz Gomez, F., Roels, T.H., Wester, C.W., Bodika, S.M., Moyo, S., Taffa, N., Anderson, M.G., Mine, M., Bile, E.C., Yang, C., Mphoyakgosi, K., Lehotzky, E.A., Mlotshwa, B., Mmelesi, M., Seipone, K., Makhema, M.J., Marlink, R.G., Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: lessons learned from the HIVDR-Threshold Survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. AIDS ResHum Retroviruses. Apr;27(4):365-72. (2011)

Cohen, M.S., Chen, Y.Q., McCauley, M., Gamble, T., Hosseinipour, M.C., Kumarasamy, N., Hakim, J.G., Kumwenda, J., Grinsztejn, B., Pilotto, J.H., Godbole, S.V., Mehendale, S., Chariyalertsak, S., Santos, B.R., Mayer, K.H., Hoffman, I.F., Eshleman, S.H., Piwowar-Manning, E., Wang, L., Makhema, J., Mills, L.A., de Bruyn, G., Sanne, I., Eron, J., Gallant, J., Havlir, D., Swindells, S., Ribaudo, H., Elharrar, V., Burns, D., Taha, T.E., Nielsen-Saines, K., Celentano, D., Essex, M., Fleming, T.R.; the HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jul 18. Aug 11; 65(6):493-505 (2011)’

Dryden-Peterson, S., Shapiro, R.L., Hughes, M.D., Powis, K., Ogwu, A., Moffat, C., Moyo, S., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Lockman, S. Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana. JAIDS. Apr;56(5):428-36. (2011)

Dryden-Peterson, S., Jayeoba, O., Hughes, M.D., Jibril, H., Keapoletswe, K., Tlale, J., Modise, T.A., Asmelash, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfel,t E., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy versus Zidovudine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission in a Programmatic Setting, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 22. [Epub ahead of print]

Firnhaber, C., Evans, D., Friedman-Khalili, R., Willliams, S., Michelow, P., Matlhagela, K., Wester, C., Grinsztejn, B., Lockman, S. Seroprevalence of HPV vaccine types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in HIV-infected women from South Africa, Brazil and Botswana. J Clin Virol. 2011 Sep 9. [Epub ahead of print]

Lin, N.H., Smeaton, L.M., Giguel, F., Novitsky, V., Moyo, S., Mitchell, R.M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Lockman, S., and Kuritzkes, D.R. Prevalence and clinical associations of CXCR4-using HIV-1 among treatment-naive subtype C-infected women in Botswana. JAIDS. May; 57(1): 46-50. (2011)

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., and Essex, M. Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 6:e16714 (2011).

Novitsky, V., Ndung’u, T., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Chonco, F., Makhema, J., De Gruttola, V., Walker, B.D., Essex, M. Extended high viremics: a substantial fraction of individuals maintain high plasma viral RNA levels after acute HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS. Jul; 25(12):1515-22. (2011).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Baca, J., Margolin, L., McLane, MF., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Essex, M. Evolutionary gamut of in vivo Gag substitutions during early HIV-1 subtype C infection. Virology. 2011 Oct 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Parekh, N., Ribaudo, H., Souda, S., Chen, J., Mmalane, M., Powis, K., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Shapiro, R.L. Risk factors for very preterm delivery and delivery of very-small-for-gestational-age infants among HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in Botswana. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Jul 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Powis, K.M., Smeaton, L., Ogwu, A., Lockman, S. Dryden-Peterson, S., van Widenfelt, E., Leidner, J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on longitudinal growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana. JAIDS. 1:56(2):131-8. (2011)

Powis, K.M., Kitch, D., Ogwu, A., Hughes, M.D., Lockman, S., Leidner, J., van Widenfelt, E., Moffat, C., Moyo, S., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery Among HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Protease Versus Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based HAART During Pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;204(4):506-14.

Rossenkhan, R., Novitsky, V., Sebunya, T.K., Leidner, J., Hagan, J.E., Moyo, S., Smeaton, L., Lockman, S., Musonda, R., Ndung’u, T., Gaseitsiwe, S., Thior, I., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R. Infant Feeding Practices were not Associated with Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana. AIDS Behav. 2011 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Wester, C.W., Koethe, J.R., Shepherd, B.E., Stinnette, S.E., Rebeiro, P.F., Kipp, A..M., Hong, H., Bussmann, H., Gaolathe, T., McGowan, C.C., Sterling, T.R., Marlink, R.G Non-AIDS Defining Events Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy In Urban Settings in Sub-Saharan Africa and the United States. AIDS. Jul;(25): 1471-9. (2011)

back to top

2010
Celum, C., Wald, A., Lingappa, J.R., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Baeten, J.M., Mullins, J.I., Hughes, J.P., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyn, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Stevens, W., Campbell, M.S., Thomas, K.K., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W.L.H., McElrath, M.J., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., and Corey, L., for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 362:427 (2010).

Chen, J.Y., Ogwu, A.C., Svab, P., Lockman, S., Moffat, H.J., Gaolathe, T., Moilwa, S., Størdal, K., Dryden-Peterson, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women with Low CD4+ Cell Counts in Gaborone, Botswana. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 54:102–6 (2010).

Do NT, Phiri K, Bussmann H, Gaolathe T, Marlink RG, Wester CW. Psychosocial factors affecting medication adherence among HIV-1 infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Jun;26(6):685-91.

Kebaabetswe, P., Ndase, P., Mujugira, A., Sekoto, T., Ntshimane, M., Owor, A., Makhema, J., Thior, I., and Essex, M. Perceptions of couple HIV counseling and testing in Botswana: A stakeholder analysis. Patient Educ. Couns. 79:120–3 (2010).

Lingappa., J.R., Baeten, J.M., Wald, A., Hughes, J.P., Thomas, K.T., Mujugira, A., Mugo, N., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Steward, G.J., Makehma, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyen, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Kidoguchi, L., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., Corey, L., and Celum, C. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet. 375: 824-833. (2010)

Lingappa, J.R., Hughes, J.P., Wang, R.S., Baeten, J.M., Celum, C., Gray, G.E., Stevens, W., Donnell, D., Campbell, M.S., Farquhar, C., Essex, M., Mullins, J.I., Coombs, R.W., Rees, H., Corey, L., and Wald, A. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk. PLoS One.5:e12598. (2010)

Lockman, S., Hughes, M.D., McIntyre, J., Zheng, Y., Chipato, T., Conradie, F., Sawe, F., Asmelash, A., Hosseinipour, M.C., Mohapi, L., Stringer, E., Mngqibisa, R., Siika, A., Atwine, D., Hakim, J., Shaffer, D., Kanyama, C., Wools-Kaloustian, K., Salata, R.A., Hogg, E., Alston-Smith, B., Walawander, A., Purcelle-Smith, E., Eshleman, S., Rooney, J., Rahim, S., Mellors, J.W., Schooley, R.T., Currier, J.S.; OCTANE A5208 Study Team. Antiretroviral therapies in women after single-dose nevirapine exposure. N Engl J Med. Oct 14; 363(16):1499-509. (2010).

MacLeod, I.J., Rowley, C.F., Essex, M., and Lockman, S. Minor Resistant Variants in Nevirapine-Exposed Infants May Predict Virologic Failure on Nevirapine-Containing ART. J. Clin. Virol. 48:162–7 (2010).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Lockman, S., Baum, M., Shapiro, R., Thior, I., Wester, C., Wester, C.W., Ogwu, A., Asmelash, A., Musonda, R., Campa, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Mine, M., Moffat, C., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Marlink, R., Gilbert, P., Seage, G.R. 3rd, DeGruttola, V., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission. PloS One. 5:e10148 (2010).

Plank, R.M., Makhema, J., Kebaabetswe, P., Hussein, F., Leseidi, C., Halperinm D., Bassil, B., Shapiro, R., Lockman, S. Acceptability of infant male circumcision as part of HIV prevention and male reporductive health efforts in Gaborone, Botswana, and surrounding areas. AIDS Behav. Oct;14(5):1198-202. (2010)

Shapiro, R., Hughes, M., Ogwu, A., Kitch, D., Lockman, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Moyo, S., Thior, I., McIntosh, K., van Widenfelt, E., Leidner, J., Powis, K., Asmelash, A., Tumbare, E., Zwerski, S., Sharma, U., Handelsman, E., Mburu, K., Jayeoba, O., Moko, E., Souda, S., Lubega, E., Akhtar, M., Wester, C., Snowden, W., Martinez-Tristani, M., Mazhani, L., Essex, M. Antiretroviral Regimens in Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 362:2282-2294. (2010).

Wester, C.W., Thomas, A.M., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Makhema, J.M., Gaolathe, T.,Novitsky, V., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor outcomes among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana. AIDS. Suppl 1:S27–36 (2010).

back to top

2009
Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Thomas, A., Novitsky, V., Okezie, R., Muzenda, T., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Mawoko, N., Widenfelt, E., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Mine, M., Makhema, J., Moffat, H., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Response to Zidovudine/Didanosine-Containing Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Adults in Botswana: Two-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 51:37–46 (2009).

Chen, J.Y., Ogwu, A.C., Svab, P., Lockman, S., Moffat, H.J., Gaolathe, T., Moilwa, S., Størdal, K., Dryden-Peterson, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women with Low CD4+ Cell Counts in Gaborone, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Epub 27 October 2009.

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaolathe, T., Avalos, A., Cloutier, S., Ndwapi, N., Holcroft, C., Moffat., H., Dickinson, D., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A., Mine, M. Five-year follow up of genotypic resistance patterns in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana after failure of thymidine analogue-based regimens. J. of International AIDS Society. 12:25. (2009)

Lingappa, J.R., Kahle E., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Magaret, A., Baeten, J., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were E., Fife K., deBruyn, G., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W., Corey, L., Wald, A., and Celum, C., for the Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study Team. Characteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners Study. PLoS ONE. 4:e5272 (2009).

Novitsky, V., Lagakos, S., Herzig, M., Bonney, C., Kebaabetswe, L, Rossenkhan, R., Nkwe, D., Margolin, L., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Evolution of Proviral gp120 over the First Year of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. Virology. 383:47–59 (2009).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Nkwe, D., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Timing Constraints of in Vivo Gag Mutations during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 4:e7727 (2009).

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Kebaabetswe, L., Greenwald, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Better Control of Early Viral Replication Is Associated with Slower Rate of Elicited Antiviral Antibodies in the Detuned EIA during Primary HIV-1C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 52:265–272 (2009).

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Mlotshwa, B., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Finucane, M., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Wester, C., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Dynamics in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 50:65–76 (2009).

Mine, M., Bedi, K., Maruta, T., Madziva, D., Tau, M., Zana, T., Gaolathe, T., Moyo, S., Seipone, K., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., and Marlink, R. Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load in Plasma Using Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay at a District Hospital Laboratory in Botswana: A Decentralization Pilot Study. J. Virol. Methods. 159:93–97 (2009).

Rossenkhan, R., Ndung’u, T., Sebunya, T., Hagan, J., Shapiro, R., Novitsky, V., Moyo, S.M., Thior, I., Lockman, S., Mitchell, R., Kim, S., Musonda, R., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Temporal Reduction of HIV Type 1 Viral Load in Breast Milk by Single-Dose Nevirapine during Prevention of MTCT. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 25:1261–4 (2009).

Shapiro, R.L., Smeaton, L., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Rossenkahn, R., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Moffat, C., Arimi, P., Ndase, P., Asmelash, A., Leidner, J., Novitsky, V., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Risk Factors for Early and Late Transmission of HIV via Breast-Feeding among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana. J. Infect. Dis. 199:414–418 (2009).

Shipton, L.K., Wester, C.W., Stock, S., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Thior, I., Avalos, A., Moffat, H.J., Mboya J.J., Widenfelt, E., Essex, M., Hughes, M.D., and Shapiro, R.L. Safety and Efficacy of Nevirapine and Efavarinz-Based Antiretroviral Treatment in Adults Treated for TB-HIV Co-Infection in Botswana. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13:360–366 (2009).

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Koethe, J., Moffat, C., Vermund, S., Essex, M., and Marlink, R.G. Adult Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana and Future Challenges. HIV Ther. 3:501–526 (2009).

back to top

2008
Bae, W.H., Wester, C., Smeaton, L.M., Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Onyait, K., Thior, I., Essex, M. Hematologic and hepatic toxicities associated with antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy among infants. AIDS. Aug 20;22(13):1633-40 (2008).

Bussmann C, Rotz P, Ndwapi N, Baxter D, Bussmann H, Wester CW, Ncube P, Avalos A, Mine M, Mabe E, Burns P, Cardiello P, Makhema J, Marlink R. Strengthening healthcare capacity through a responsive, country-specific, training standard: the KITSO AIDS training program’s support of Botswana’s national antiretroviral therapy rollout. Open AIDS J. 2008;2:10-6. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Ndwapi, N., Grundmann, N., Gaolathe, T., Puvimanasinghe, J., Avalos, A., Mine, M., Seipone, K., Essex, M., deGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Five-Year Outcomes of Initial Patients Treated in Botswana’s National Antiretroviral Treatment Program. AIDS. 22:2303–2311 (2008).

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Wester, C., McDonald, E., Rossenkhan, R., Ketunuti, M., Makhema, J., Seage, G.R. 3rd, Essex, M. Identification of primary HIV-1C infection in Botswana. AIDS Care. Aug;20(7):806-11 (2008).

Rowley, C.F., Boutwell, C.L., Lockman, S., Essex, M. Improvement in allele-specific PCR assay with the use of polymorphism-specific primers for the analysis of minor variant drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol Methods.Apr;149(1):69-75. (2008).

back to top

2007
Boutwell, C., and Essex, M. Identification of Class I HLA-Associated Amino Acid Polymorphisms in the HIV-1C Proteome. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 23:165-174 (2007).

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Wester, C.N., Lekoko, B., Okezie, O., Thomas, A.M., DeGruttola, S.M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Marlink, R.G. Pregnancy rates and birth outcomes among women on efavirenz-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Jul 1;45(3):269-73 (2007).

Lockman, S., Shapiro, R.L., Smeaton, L.M., Wester, C., Thior, I., Stevens, L., Chand, F., Makhema, J., Moffat, C., Asmelash, A., Ndase, P., Arimi, P., van Widenfelt, E., Mazhani, L., Novitsky, V., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Response to Antiretroviral Therapy after a Single, Peripartum Dose of Nevirapine. N. Engl. J. Med. 356:135-147 (2007).

Novitsky, V., Wester, C. W., De Gruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Gaseitsiwe, S., Thomas, A., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., van Widenfelt, E., Marlink, R. G., and Essex, M. The Reverse Transcriptase 67N 70R 215Y Genotype Is the Predominant TAM Pathway Associated with Virologic Failure among HIV Type 1C-Infected Adults Treated with ZDV/ddI-Containing HAART in Southern Africa. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 23:868-878 (2007).

Novitsky, V., Gaolathe, T., Woldegabriel, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. A Seronegative Case of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection in Botswana. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45:e68-71 (2007).

Redd, A.D., Avalos, A., and Essex, M. Infection of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells by HIV-1 Subtype C, and Its Association with Anemia in Southern Africa. Blood. 110:3143-3149 (2007).

Redd, A.D., Avalos, A., Phiri, K., Essex, M. Effects of HIV type 1 infection on hematopoiesis in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. Aug;23(8):996-1003 (2007).

Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Kim, S., Smeaton, L., Rahkola, J.T., Thior, I., Wester, C., Moffat, C., Arimi, P., Ndase, P., Asmelash, A., Stevens, L., Montano, M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Janoff, E.N. Infant morbidity, mortality, and breast milk immunologic profiles among breast-feeding HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana. J Infect Dis. Aug 15;196(4):562-9. Epub 2007 Jul 9 (2007).

Thior, I., Gabaitiri, L., Grimes, J., Shapiro, R., Lockman, S., Kim, S., Kebaabetswe, P., Garmey, E., Montano, M., Peter, T., Chang, S.Y., Marlink, R., and Essex M. Voluntary Counseling and Testing among Post-Partum Women in Botswana. Patient Educ. Couns. 65:296-302 (2007).

Wester, C.W., Okezie, O.A., Thomas, A.M., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Muzenda, T., Makhema, J., van Widenfelt, E., Musonda, R., Novitsky, V., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., Kuritzkes, D.R., DeGruttola, V., Marlink, R.G. Higher-than-expected rates of lactic acidosis among highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated women in Botswana: preliminary results from a large randomized clinical trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Nov 1;46(3):318-22 (2007).

back to top

2006
Brenner, B.G., Oliveira, M., Doualla-Bell, F., Moisi, D.D., Ntemgwa, M., Frankel, F., Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. HIV-1 Subtype C Viruses Rapidly Develop K65R Resistance to Tenofovir in Cell Culture. AIDS. 20:F9-F13 (2006).

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Ndwapi, N., Vanderwarker, C., Gaolathe, T., Tirelo, G., Avalos, A., Moffat, H., Marlink, R.G. Hybrid data capture for monitoring patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban Botswana. Bull World Health Organ. Feb;84(2):127-31 (2006).

Doualla-Bell, F., Avalos, A., Brenner, B., Gaolathe, T., Mine, M., Gaseitsiwe, S., Oliveira, M., Moisi, D., Ndwapi, N., Moffat, H., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A. High prevalence of the K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C isolates from infected patients in Botswana treated with didanosine-based regimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Dec;50(12):4182-5. Epub 2006 Oct 2 (2006).

Doualla-Bell, F., Avalos, A., Gaolathe, T., Mine, M, Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndwapi, N., Novtisky, V., Brenner, B., Oliveira, M., Moisi, D., Moffat, H., Thior, I, Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C on drug resistance mutations in patients from Botswana failing a nelfinavir-containing regimen. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 2210-2213 (2006).

Montano, M., Rarick, M., Sebastiani, P., Brinkmann, P., Russell, M., Navis, A., Wester, C., Thior, I., Essex, M. Gene-expression profiling of HIV-1 infection and perinatal transmission in Botswana. Genes Immun. Jun;7(4):298-309. Epub 2006 May 4 (2006).

Ndung’u, T., Sepako, E., McLane, M.F., Chand, F., Bedi, K., Gaseitsiwe, S., Doualla-Bell, F., Peter, T., Thior, I., Moyo, S.M., Gilbert, P., Novitsky, V.A., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C In Vitro Growth and Coreceptor Utilization. Virology. 347:247-260 (2006).

Nkolola, J.P., and Essex, M. Progress Towards an HIV-1 Subtype C Vaccine. Vaccine. 24:391-401 (2006).

Novitsky, V., Gilbert, P., Shea, K., McLane, M.F., Rybak, N., Klein, I., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Interactive Association of Proviral Load and IFN-Secreting T Cell Responses in HIV-1C Infection. Virology. 349:142-155 (2006).

Shapiro, R.L., Thior, I., Gilbert, P.B., Lockman, S., Wester, C., Smeaton, L.M., Stevens, L., Heymann, S.J., Ndung’u, T., Gaseitsiwe, S., Novitsky, V., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., Essex, M. Maternal single-dose nevirapine versus placebo as part of an antiretroviral strategy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana. AIDS. Jun 12;20(9):1281-8 (2006).

Thior, I., Lockman, S., Smeaton, L.M., Shapiro, R.L., Wester, C., Heymann, S.J., Gilbert, P.B., Stevens, L., Peter, T., Kim, S., van Widenfelt, E., Moffat, C., Ndase, P., Arimi, P., Kebaabetswe, P., Mazonde, P., Makhema, J., McIntosh, K., Novitsky, V., Lee, T.H., Marlink, R., Lagakos, S., Essex, M; Mashi Study Team. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana: a randomized trial: the Mashi Study. JAMA. Aug 16;296(7):794-805 (2006).

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Avalos, A., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., MacGregor, R.R., Marlink, R.G. Serological evidence of HIV-associated infection among HIV-1-infected adults in Botswana. Clin Infect Dis. Dec 15;43(12):1612-5.

Wolfe, W.R., Weiser, S.D., Bangsberg, D.R., Thior, I., Makhema, J.M., Dickinson, D.B., Mompati, K.F., Marlink, R.G. Effects of HIV-related stigma among an early sample of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. AIDS Care. Nov;18(8):931-3 (2006).

back to top

2005
Bussmann, H., Novitsky, V., Wester, W., Peter, T., Masupu, K., Gabaitiri, L., Kim, S., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndungú, T., Marlink, R., Thior, I., Essex, M. HIV-1 subtype C drug-resistance background among ARV-naive adults in Botswana. Antivir Chem Chemother. 16(2):103-15 (2005).

Gilbert, P.B., Novitsky, V., and Essex, M. Covariability of Selected Amino Acid Positions for HIV Type 1 Subtypes C and B. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 21:1016-1030 (2005).

Ndung’u, T,, Gaseitsiwe, S., Sepako, E., Doualla-Bell, F., Peter, T., Kim, S., Thior, I., Novitsky, V.A., Essex, M. Major histocompatibility complex class II (HLA-DRB and -DQB) allele frequencies in Botswana: association with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Sep;12(9):1020-8 (2005).

Shapiro, R.L., Holland, D.T., Capparelli, E., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Peter, T., Essex, M., Connor, J.D., Mirochnick, M. Antiretroviral concentrations in breast-feeding infants of women in Botswana receiving antiretroviral treatment. J Infect Dis. Sep 1;192(5):720-7 (2005).

Shapiro, R.L., Ndung’u, T., Lockman, S., Smeaton, L.M., Thior, I., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Sebetso, G., Gaseitsiwe, S., Peter, T., Essex, M. Highly active antiretroviral therapy started during pregnancy or postpartum suppresses HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk. J Infect Dis Sep 1;192(5):713-9 (2005).

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Avalos, A., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Cardiello, P., Bussmann, C., Moffat, H., Mazonde, P., Marlink, R.G. Establishment of a public antiretroviral treatment clinic for adults in urban Botswana: lessons learned. Clin Infect Dis. Apr 1;40(7):1041-4 (2005).

Wester, C.W., Kim, S., Bussmann, H., Avalos, A., Ndwapi, N., Peter, T.F., Gaolathe, T., Mujugira, A., Busang, L., Vanderwarker, C., Cardiello, P., Johnson, O., Thior, I., Mazonde, P., Moffat, H., Essex, M., Marlink, R. Initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1C-infected adults in a public sector treatment program in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Nov 1;40(3):336-43 (2005).

back to top

2004
Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Masupu, K.V., Peter, T., Gaolekwe, S.M., Kim, S., Reich, AM., Ahn, S., Wu, Y., Thior, I., Essex, M., Marlink, R. Low CD4+ T-lymphocyte values in human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults in Botswana. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Sep;11(5):930-5 (2004).

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndung’u, T., Modukanele, M., Peter, T., Novitsky, V., Ndwapi, N., Tendani, G., Avalos, A., Wester, W., Bussmann, H., Cardiello, P., Marlink, R., Moffat, H., Thior, I., Wainberg, M.A., Essex, M. Mutations and polymorphisms associated with antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1C-infected African patients. Antivir Chem Chemother. Jul;15(4):189-200 (2004).

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndung’u, T., Modukanele, M., Peter, T., Novitsky, V., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Avalos, A., Wester, W., Bussmann, H., Cardiello, P., Marlink, R., Moffatt, H., Thior, I., Wainberg, M.A., and Essex, M. Mutations and Polymorphisms Associated with Antiretroviral Drugs in HIV-1C-Infected African Patients. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 15:189-200 (2004).

back to top

2003
Kebaabetswe, P., Lockman, S., Mogwe, S., Mandevu, R., Thior, I., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Male circumcision: an acceptable strategy for HIV prevention in Botswana. Sex Transm Infect. Jun;79(3):214-9 (2003).

Lockman, S., Hone, N., Kenyon, T.A., Mwasekaga, M., Villauthapillai, M., Creek, T., Zell, E., Kirby, A., Thacker, W.L., Talkington, D., Moura, I.N., Binkin, N.J., Clay, L., Tappero, J.W. Etiology of pulmonary infections in predominantly HIV-infected adults with suspected tuberculosis, Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Aug;7(8):714-23 (2003).

Loemba, H., Brenner, B., Parniak, M.A., Ma’ayan, S., Spira, B., Moisi, D., Oliveira, M., Detorio, M., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A. Polymorphisms of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and T-helper epitopes within reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 subtype C from Ethiopia and Botswana following selection of antiretroviral drug resistance. Antiviral Res. Nov;56(2):129-42 (2003).

Montano, M., Russell, M., Gilbert, P., Thior, I., Lockman, S., Shapiro, R., Chang, S.Y., Lee, T.H., Essex, M. Comparative prediction of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission, using multiple virus load markers. J Infect Dis. Aug 1;188(3):406-13 (2003).

Novitsky, V., Gilbert, P., Peter, T., McLane, M.F., Gaolekwe, S., Rybak, N., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Association between Virus-Specific CTL Responses and Plasma Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Infection. J. Virol. 77:882-890 (2003).

Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Stocking, L., Kebaabetswe, P., Wester, C., Peter, T., Marlink, R., Essex, M., Heymann, S.J. Low adherence to recommended infant feeding strategies among HIV-infected women: results from the pilot phase of a randomized trial to prevent mother-to-child transmission in Botswana. AIDS Educ Prev. Jun;15(3):221-30 (2003).

Quan, Y., Brenner, B., Marlink, R., Essex, M., Kurimura, T., and Wainberg, M. Drug Resistance Profiles of Recombinant Reverse Transcriptases from HIV-1 Subtypes A/E, B, and C. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 19:743-753 (2003).

Weiser, S., Wolfe, W., Bangsberg, D., Thior, I., Gilbert, P., Makhema, J., Kebaabetswe, P., Dickenson, D., Mompati, K., Essex, M., Marlink, R. Barriers to antiretroviral adherence for patients living with HIV infection and AIDS in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Nov 1;34(3):281-8 (2003).

back to top

2002
Kenyon, T.A., Creek, T., Laserson, K., Makhoa, M., Chimidza, N., Mwasekaga, M., Tappero, J., Lockman, S., Moeti, T., Binkin, N. Risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Oct;6(10):843-50 (2002).

Novitsky, V., Cao, H., Rybak, N., Gilbert, P., McLane, M.F., Gaolekwe, S., Peter, T., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Magnitude and Frequency of CTL Responses: Identification of Immunodominant Regions in HIV-1 Subtype C. J. Virol. 76:10155-10168 (2002).

Novitsky, V., Smith, U.R., Gilbert, P., McLane, M.F., Chigwedere, P., Williamson, C., Ndung’u, T., Klein, I., Chang, S.Y., Peter, T., Thior, I., Foley, B.T., Gaolekwe, S., Rybak, N., Gaseitsiwe, S., Vannberg, F., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Phylogeny: Consensus Sequence for an AIDS Vaccine Design? J. Virol. 76:5435-5451 (2002).

back to top

2001
Ndung’u, T., Lu, Y., Renjifo, B., Touzjian, N., Kushner, N., Pena-Cruz, V., Novitsky, V., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. An Infectious Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C from an African Isolate: Rhesus Macaque Model. J. Virol. 75:11417-11425 (2001).

Ndung’u, T., Renjifo, B., and Essex, M. Construction and Analysis of an Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Clone. J. Virol. 75:4964-4972 (2001).

Novitsky V, Flores-Villanueva PO, Chigwedere P, Gaolekwe S, Bussman H, Sebetso G, Marlink R, Yunis EJ, Essex M. Identification of most frequent HLA class I antigen specificities in Botswana: relevance for HIV vaccine design. Hum Immunol. Feb;62(2):146-56. (2001)

Novitsky, V., Rybak, N., McLane, M.F., Gilbert, P., Chigwedere, P., Klein, I., Gaolekwe, S., Chang, S.Y., Peter, T., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Vannberg, F., Foley, B.T., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex M. Identification of HIV-1C Gag-, Tat-, Rev-, and Nef-specific Elispot-based CTL Responses for AIDS Vaccine Design. J. Virol. 75:9210-9228 (2001).

back to top

2000
Montano, M.A., Nixon, C.P., Ndung’u, T., Bussmann, H., Novitsky, V.A., Dickman, D., Essex, M. Elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C in Southern Africa is associated with an NF-kappaB enhancer gain-of-function. J Infect Dis. Jan;181(1):76-81 (2000).

Ndung’u, T., Renjifo, B., Novitsky, V.A., McLane, M.F., Gaolekwe, S., Essex, M. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of full-length HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana. Virology. Dec 20;278(2):390-9 (2000).

Novitsky, V.A., Gaolekwe, S., McLane, M.F., Ndung’u, T.P., Foley, B.T., Vannberg, F., Marlink, R., and Essex, M. HIV-1 A/J Recombinant with a Pronounced pol Gene Mosaicism. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 16:1015-1020 (2000).

back to top

1999
Novitsky, V.A., Montano, M.A., McLane, M.F., Renjifo, B., Vannberg, F., Foley, B.T., Ndung’u, T.P., Rahman, M., Makhema, M.J., Marlink, R., Essex, M. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C: a set of 23 full-length clones from Botswana. J Virol. May;73(5):4427-32 (1999).