Research Papers

2016|20152014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999

2016

Farahani M, Price N, El-Halabi S, Mlaudzi N, Keapoletswe K, Lebelonyane R, Fetogang EB, Chebani T, Kebaabetswe P, Masupe T, Gabaake K, Auld AF, Nkomazana O, Marlink R. Impact of Health System Inputs on Health Outcome: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis of Botswana National Antiretroviral Program (2002-2013). PLoS One. 2016 Aug 4

Moyo S, Kotokwe KP, Mohammed T, Boleo C, Mupfumi L, Chishala S, Tsalaile L, Bussmann H, Gaseitsiwe S, Musonda R, Makhema J, Baum MK, Marlink RG, Engelbrecht S, Essex M, Novitsky V. Low False Recent Rate of Limiting Antigen-Avidity Assay Combined with HIV-1 RNA Data in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Aug 1

Zash R, Souda S, Leidner J, Ribaudo H, Binda K, Moyo S, Powis KM, Petlo C, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Essex M, Lockman S, Shapiro R. HIV-exposed children account for more than half of 24-month mortality in Botswana. BMC Pediatr. 2016 Jul 21

Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Grinsztejn B, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Chariyalertsak S, Santos BR, Mayer KH, Hoffman IF, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Cottle L, Zhang XC, Makhema J, Mills LA, Panchia R, Faesen S, Eron J, Gallant J, Havlir D, Swindells S, Elharrar V, Burns D, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano DD, Essex M, Hudelson SE, Redd AD, Fleming TR; HPTN 052 Study Team. Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 18

Rossenkhan R, MacLeod IJ, Brumme ZL, Magaret C, Sebunya TK, Musonda R, Gashe BA, Novitsky V, Edlefsen P, Essex M. Transmitted / founder HIV-1 subtype C viruses show distinctive signature patterns in Vif, Vpr and Vpu that are under subsequent immune pressure during early infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Jun 28

Lin N, Gonzalez OA, Registre L, Becerril C, Etemad B, Lu H, Wu X, Lockman S, Essex M, Moyo S, Kuritzkes DR, Sagar M. Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants. EBioMedicine. 2016 Jun

Ogwu A, Moyo S, Powis K, Asmelash A, Lockman S, Moffat C, Leidner J, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. Predictors of Early Breastfeeding Cessation among HIV-infected women in Botswana. Trop Med Int Health. 2016 May 25

Perry ME, Kalenga K, Francois Watkins L, Mukaya JE, Powis KM, Bennett K, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Shapiro RL. HIV-related mortality at a district hospital in Botswana. Int J STD AIDS. 2016 May 9

Martinez SS, Campa A, Bussmann H, Moyo S, Makhema J, Huffman FG, Williams OD, Essex M, Marlink R, Baum MK. Effect of BMI and fat mass on HIV disease progression in HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in Botswana. Br J Nutr. 2016 Apr 18

Brown CA, Suneja G, Tapela N, Mapes A, Pusoentsi M, Mmalane M, Hodgeman R, Boyer M, Musimar Z, Ramogola-Masire D, Grover S, Nsingo-Bvochora M, Kayembe M, Efstathiou J, Lockman S, Dryden-Peterson S. Predictors of Timely Access of Oncology Services and Advanced-Stage Cancer in an HIV-Endemic SettingOncologist. 2016 Apr 6.

Zash R, Souda S, Chen JY, Binda K, Dryden-Peterson S, Lockman S, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. Reassuring Birth Outcomes With Tenofovir/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz Used for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Apr 1

Tendani Gaolathe, MD, Kathleen E Wirth, ScD, Molly Pretorius Holme, MS, Joseph Makhema, FRCP, Sikhulile Moyo, MSc,Unoda Chakalisa, MD, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, MPH, Quanhong Lei, PhD, Mompati Mmalane, MSc, Vlad Novitsky, PhD,Lillian Okui, MPH, Erik van Widenfelt, BA, Kathleen M Powis, MD, Nealia Khan, MPH, Kara Bennett, MS, Hermann Bussmann, MD, Scott Dryden-Peterson, MD, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, MPH, Shenaaz el-Halabi, MPH, Lisa A Mills, MD,Tafireyi Marukutira, MD, Rui Wang, PhD, Prof Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, PhD, Prof Victor DeGruttola, DSc, Prof M Essex, PhD, Shahin Lockman, MD, Botswana Combination Prevention Project study team. Botswana’s progress toward achieving the 2020 UNAIDS 90-90-90 antiretroviral therapy and virological suppression goals: a population-based survey. The Lancet HIVPublished Online: 23 March 2016

Rowley CF, MacLeod IJ, Maruapula D, Lekoko B, Gaseitsiwe S, Mine M, Essex M. Sharp increase in rates of HIVtransmitted drug resistance at antenatal clinics in Botswana demonstrates the need for routine surveillanceJ Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Feb 29

Ahmed S, Bärnighausen T, Daniels N, Marlink R, Roberts MJ. How providers influence the implementation of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in Botswana: a qualitative study. Implement Sci. 2016 Feb 11

Mayondi GK, Wirth K, Morroni C, Moyo S, Ajibola G, Diseko M, Sakoi M, Magetse JD, Moabi K, Leidner J, Makhema J, Kammerer B, Lockman S. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional studyBMC Public Health. 2016 Jan

Powis KM, Smeaton L, Hughes MD, Tumbare EA, Souda S, Jao J, Wirth KE, Makhema J, Lockman S, Fawzi W, Essex M, Shapiro RL.  In-utero triple antiretroviral exposure associated with decreased growth among HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana. AIDS. 2016 Jan

2015

Novitsky V, Kühnert D, Moyo S, Widenfelt E, Okui L, Essex M. Phylodynamic analysis of HIV sub-epidemics in Mochudi, Botswana. Epidemics. 2015 Dec

Wirth KE, Agniel D, Barr CD, Austin MD, DeGruttola V. A composite likelihood approach for estimating HIV prevalence in the presence of spatial variation. Stat Med. 2015 Dec 10

Farahani M, Price N, El-Halabi S, Mlaudzi N, Keapoletswe K, Lebelonyane R, Fetogang EB, Chebani T, Kebaabetswe P, Masupe T, Gabaake K, Auld A, Nkomazana O, Marlink R. Trends and determinants of survival for over 200 000 patients on antiretroviral treatment in the Botswana National Program: 2002-2013AIDS. 2015 Dec 3

Auld AF, Shiraishi RW, Mbofana F, Couto A, Fetogang EB, El-Halabi S, Lebelonyane R, Pilatwe PT, Hamunime N, Okello V, Mutasa-Apollo T, Mugurungi O, Murungu J, Dzangare J, Kwesigabo G, Wabwire-Mangen F, Mulenga M, Hachizovu S, Ettiegne-Traore V, Mohamed F; MSAE, Bashorun A, Nhan do T, Hai NH, Quang TH, Van Onacker JD, Francois K, Robin EG, Desforges G, Farahani M, Kamiru H, Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha H, Ehrenkranz P, Denison JA, Koole O, Tsui S, Torpey K, Mukadi YD, van Praag E, Menten J, Mastro TD, Hamilton CD, Abiri OO, Griswold M, Pierre E, Xavier C, Alfredo C, Jobarteh K, Letebele M, Agolory S, Baughman AL, Mutandi G, Preko P, Ryan C, Ao T, Gonese E, Herman-Roloff A, Ekra KA, Kouakou JS, Odafe S, Onotu D, Dalhatu I, Debem HH, Nguyen DB, Yen le N, Abdul-Quader AS, Pelletier V, Williams SG, Behel S, Bicego G, Swaminathan M, Dokubo EK, Adjorlolo-Johnson G, Marlink R, Lowrance D, Spira T, Colebunders R, Bangsberg D, Zee A, Kaplan J, Ellerbrock TV. Lower Levels of Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Among Men with HIV Compared with Women – 12 Countries, 2002-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Nov 27

Moyo S, Wilkinson E, Novitsky V, Vandormael A, Gaseitsiwe S, Essex M, Engelbrecht S, de Oliveira T. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics. Viruses. 2015 Oct 23

Farahani M, Price N, El-Halabi S, Mlaudzi N, Keapoletswe K, Lebelonyane R, Fetogang EB, Chebani T, Kebaabetswe P, Masupe T, Gabaake K, Auld A, Nkomazana O, Marlink R. Variation in attrition at sub-national level: Review of the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment (Masa) program data (2002-2013). Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Oct 20

Zash R, Souda S, Chen JY, Binda K, Dryden-Peterson S, Lockman S, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. Reassuring Birth Outcomes with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz used for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Sep 12

Schaan MM, Taylor M, Gungqisa N, Marlink R. Personal views about womanhood amongst women living with HIV in Botswana. Cult Health Sex. 2015 Aug 25

Novitsky V, Zahralban-Steele M, McLane MF, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Gaseitsiwe S, Makhema J, Essex M. Long-Range HIV Genotyping Using Viral RNA and Proviral DNA for Analysis of HIV Drug Resistance and HIV Clustering. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Aug

Anderson M, Gaseitsiwe S, Moyo S, Wessels MJ, Mohammed T, Sebunya TK, Powell EA, Makhema J, Blackard JT, Marlink R, Essex M, Musonda RM. Molecular characterisation of hepatitis B virus in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 13

Dryden-Peterson S, Medhin H, Kebabonye-Pusoentsi M, Seage GR 3rd, Suneja G, Kayembe MK, Mmalane M, Rebbeck T, Rider JR, Essex M, Lockman S. Cancer Incidence following Expansion of HIV Treatment in Botswana. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 12

De Neve JW, Fink G, Subramanian SV, Moyo S, Bor J. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment. Lancet Glob Health. 2015 Aug 3

Novitsky V, Bussmann H, Okui L, Logan A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Mmalane M, Lei Q, Holme MP, Makhema J, Lockman S, Degruttola V, Essex M. Estimated age and gender profile of individuals missed by a home-based HIV testing and counselling campaign in a Botswana community. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015 May 29

Novitsky V, Moyo S, Lei Q, DeGruttola V, Essex M. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 May

Moyo S, Cox HS, Hughes J, Daniels J, Synman L, De Azevedo V, Shroufi A, Cox V, van Cutsem G. Loss from treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis: risk factors and patient outcomes in a community-based program in Khayelitsha, South Africa. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 18

Dryden-Peterson S, Bennett K, Hughes MD, Veres A, John O, Pradhananga R, Boyer M, Brown C, Sakyi B, van Widenfelt E, Keapoletswe K, Mine M, Moyo S, Asmelash A, Siedner M, Mmalane M, Shapiro RL, Lockman S. An Augmented SMS Intervention to Improve Access to Antenatal CD4 Testing and ART Initiation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: A Cluster Randomized Trial. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 18

Novitsky V, Moyo S, Lei Q, DeGruttola V, Essex M. Importance of Viral Sequence Length and Number of Variable and Informative Sites in Analysis of HIV Clustering. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Jan 6

2014

Dryden-Peterson S, Lockman S, Zash R, Lei Q, Chen JY, Souda S, Petlo C, Dintwa E, Lebelonyane R, Mmalane M, Shapiro RL. Initial Programmatic Implementation of WHO Option B in Botswana Associated with Increased Projected MTCT. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Dec 11

Payne R, Muenchhoff M, Mann J, Roberts HE, Matthews P, Adland E, Hempenstall A, Huang KH, Brockman M, Brumme Z, Sinclair M, Miura T, Frater J, Essex M, Shapiro R, Walker BD, Ndung’u T, McLean AR, Carlson JM, Goulder PJ. Impact of HLA-driven HIV adaptation on virulence in populations of high HIV seroprevalence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 1

Novitsky V, Moyo S, Lei Q, DeGruttola V, Essex M. Impact of Sampling Density on the Extent of HIV Clustering. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Oct 2

Powis K, Lockman S, Smeaton L, Hughes MD, Fawzi W, Ogwu A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, von Oettingen J, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Vitamin D Insufficiency in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy is not associated with Morbidity, Mortality or Growth Impairment in Their Uninfected Infants in Botswana. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Jul 16

Asmelash A, Zheng Y, Kaloustian KW, Shaffer D, Sawe F, Ogwu A, Salata R, Currier J, Hughes MD, Lockman S. Predictors of suboptimal CD4 response among women achieving virologic suppression in a randomized antiretroviral treatment Trial, Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 17

Russell ES, Mohammed T, Smeaton L, Jorowe B, Macleod IJ, Hoffman RM, Currier JS, Moyo S, Essex M, Lockman S. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 21

Wang R, Goyal R, Lei Q, Essex M, De Gruttola V. Sample size considerations in the design of cluster randomized trials of combination HIV prevention. Clin Trials. 2014 Mar 20

Plank RM, Wirth KE, Ndubuka NO, Abdullahi R, Nkgau M, Lesetedi C, Powis KM, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Shapiro R, Lockman S. Single-Arm Evaluation of the AccuCirc Device for Early Infant Male Circumcision in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 3.

Grinsztejn B, Hosseinipour MC, Ribaudo HJ, Swindells S, Eron J, Chen YQ, Wang L, Ou SS, Anderson M, McCauley M, Gamble T, Kumarasamy N, Hakim JG, Kumwenda J, Pilotto JH, Godbole SV, Chariyalertsak S, de Melo MG, Mayer KH, Eshleman SH, Piwowar-Manning E, Makhema J, Mills LA, Panchia R, Sanne I, Gallant J, Hoffman I, Taha TE, Nielsen-Saines K, Celentano D, Essex M, Havlir D, Cohen MS; the HPTN 052-ACTG Study Team. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trialLancet Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 3

Farahani M., Vable A., Lebelonyane R., Seipone K., Anderson M., Avalos A., Chadborn T., Tilahun H., Roumis Themba Moeti D., Musuka G., Busang L., Gaolathe T., C S Malefho K., Marlink R. Outcomes of the Botswana national HIV/AIDS treatment programme from 2002 to 2010: a longitudinal analysis. The Lancet Global Health. January 2014

Mwafongo A, Nkanaunena K, Zheng Y, Hogg E, Samaneka W, Mulenga L, Siika A, Currier J, Lockman S, Hughes MD, Hosseinipour M; for the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) A5208 Team. Renal events among women treated with tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with either lopinavir/ritonavir or nevirapine: analysis from the AIDS Clinical Trial Group A5208 trial. AIDS 2014 Jan 18

Boltz VF, Bao Y, Lockman S, Halvas EK, Kearney MF, McIntyre JA, Schooley RT, Hughes MD, Coffin JM, Mellors JW; for the OCTANE/A5208 Team. Low-Frequency Nevirapine (NVP)-Resistant HIV-1 Variants Are Not Associated With Failure of Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Without Prior Exposure to Single-Dose NVP. J Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 16

2013

Zash RM, Ajose-Popoola O, Stordal K, Souda S, Ogwu A, Dryden-Peterson S, Powis K, Lockman S, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro RL. Risk factors for mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and unexposed infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in Botswana. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec 23

Novitsky V, Bussmann H, Logan A, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Okui L, Mmalane M, Baca J, Buck L, Phillips E, Tim D, McLane MF, Lei Q, Wang R, Makhema J, Lockman S, Degruttola V, Essex M. Phylogenetic Relatedness of Circulating HIV-1C Variants in Mochudi, Botswana. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 11

Pramanik Sollerkvist L, Gaseitsiwe S, Mine M, Sebetso G, Mphoyakgosi T, Diphoko T, Essex M, Ehrnst A. Increased CXCR4 use of HIV-1 subtype C identified by population sequencing in patients failing antiretroviral treatment compared with treatment-naïve patients in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Nov 8

Dryden-Peterson S, Jayeoba O, Hughes MD, Jibril H, McIntosh K, Modise TA, Asmelash A, Powis KM, Essex M, Shapiro RL, Lockman S. Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis and Risk of Severe Anemia or Severe Neutropenia in HAART-Exposed, HIV-Uninfected Infants. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 23

Moyo S, Lecuyer T, Wang R, Gaseitsiwe S, Weng J, Musonda R, Bussmann H, Mine M, Engelbrecht S, Makhema J, Marlink RG, Baum MK, Novitsky V, Essex M. Evaluation of the False Recent Classification Rates of Multi-Assay Algorithms in Estimating HIV-1 Subtype C Incidence. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Aug 12

Souda S, Gaseitsiwe S, Georgette N, Powis K, Moremedi D, Iketleng T, Leidner J, Moffat C, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Moyo S, Mmalane M, Musonda R, Makhema J, Essex M, Shapiro R. No Clinically Significant Drug Resistance Mutations In HIV-1 subtype C Infected Women After Discontinuation Of NRTI-Based Or PI-Based HAART For PMTCT In Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Mar 28

Wang R, Weng J, Moyo S, Pain D, Barr CD, Maruapula D, Mongwato D, Makhema J, Novitsky V, Essex M. Effect of short-course antenatal Zidovudine and single-dose Nevaripine on the BED capture enzyme immunoassay levels in HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar 22

Novitsky V, Wang R, Rossenkhan R, Moyo S, Essex M. Intra-Host Evolutionary Rates in HIV-1C env and gag during Primary Infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2013 Mar 19.

Rossenkhan R, Macleod IJ, Sebunya TK, Castro-Nallar E, McLane MF, Musonda R, Gashe BA, Novitsky V, Essex M. Tat exon 1 Exhibits Functional Diversity During HIV-1 Subtype C Primary Infection. J Virol. 2013 Mar 13

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2012
Wester, C.W., Stitelman, O.M., Degruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Marlink, R.G., van der Laan, M.J. Effect Modification by Sex and Baseline CD4+ Cell Count Among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Feb 6

Dong, B.J., Zheng, Y., Hughes, M.D., Frymoyer, A., Verotta, D., Lizak, P., Sawe, F., Currier, J.S., Lockman, S., Aweeka, F.T.; for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5208 Team. Nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics (PK) and risk of rash and hepatitis among HIV-infected Sub-Saharan African Women. AIDS. 2012 Feb 1

Laeyendecker, O., Brookmeyer, R., Mullis, C., Donnell, D., Lingappa, J., Celum, C., Baeten, J.M., Campbell, M.S., Essex, M., de Bruyn, G., Farquhar, C., Quinn, T.C., Eshleman, S. Specificity of four laboratory approaches for cross-sectional HIV incidence determination: Analysis of samples from adults with known non-recent HIV infection from five African countries. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Jan 29

Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Using HIV viral load to guide treatment-for-prevention interventions. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Jan 16

Lockman, S., Sax, P. Treatment-for-prevention: clinical considerations. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Jan 5

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2011
Baeten, J.M., Lingappa, J., Beck., I., Freukel, L., Pepper, G., Wald, A., Fife, K., Were, E., Mugo, N., Sanchez, J., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Kiare, J., Farquhar, C., Corey, L., and Celum, C. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Suppressive Therapy with Acyclovir or Valacyclovir Does Not Select for Specific HIV-1 Resistance in HIV 1/HSV-2 Dually Infected Persons. J. Infect. Dis. 2011

Bussmann, H., de la Hoz Gomez, F., Roels, T.H., Wester, C.W., Bodika, S.M., Moyo, S., Taffa, N., Anderson, M.G., Mine, M., Bile, E.C., Yang, C., Mphoyakgosi, K., Lehotzky, E.A., Mlotshwa, B., Mmelesi, M., Seipone, K., Makhema, M.J., Marlink, R.G., Novitsky, V., Essex, M. Prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Botswana: lessons learned from the HIVDR-Threshold Survey conducted among women presenting for routine antenatal care as part of the 2007 national sentinel survey. AIDS ResHum Retroviruses. Apr 2011

Cohen, M.S., Chen, Y.Q., McCauley, M., Gamble, T., Hosseinipour, M.C., Kumarasamy, N., Hakim, J.G., Kumwenda, J., Grinsztejn, B., Pilotto, J.H., Godbole, S.V., Mehendale, S., Chariyalertsak, S., Santos, B.R., Mayer, K.H., Hoffman, I.F., Eshleman, S.H., Piwowar-Manning, E., Wang, L., Makhema, J., Mills, L.A., de Bruyn, G., Sanne, I., Eron, J., Gallant, J., Havlir, D., Swindells, S., Ribaudo, H., Elharrar, V., Burns, D., Taha, T.E., Nielsen-Saines, K., Celentano, D., Essex, M., Fleming, T.R.; the HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jul 18

Dryden-Peterson, S., Shapiro, R.L., Hughes, M.D., Powis, K., Ogwu, A., Moffat, C., Moyo, S., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Lockman, S. Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana. JAIDS. Apr 2011

Dryden-Peterson, S., Jayeoba, O., Hughes, M.D., Jibril, H., Keapoletswe, K., Tlale, J., Modise, T.A., Asmelash, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfel,t E., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy versus Zidovudine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission in a Programmatic Setting, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 22

Firnhaber, C., Evans, D., Friedman-Khalili, R., Willliams, S., Michelow, P., Matlhagela, K., Wester, C., Grinsztejn, B., Lockman, S. Seroprevalence of HPV vaccine types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in HIV-infected women from South Africa, Brazil and Botswana. J Clin Virol. 2011 Sep 9

Lin, N.H., Smeaton, L.M., Giguel, F., Novitsky, V., Moyo, S., Mitchell, R.M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Lockman, S., and Kuritzkes, D.R. Prevalence and clinical associations of CXCR4-using HIV-1 among treatment-naive subtype C-infected women in Botswana. JAIDS. May 2011

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., and Essex, M. Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 2011

Novitsky, V., Ndung’u, T., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Chonco, F., Makhema, J., De Gruttola, V., Walker, B.D., Essex, M. Extended high viremics: a substantial fraction of individuals maintain high plasma viral RNA levels after acute HIV-1 subtype C infection. AIDS. Jul 2011

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Baca, J., Margolin, L., McLane, MF., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Essex, M. Evolutionary gamut of in vivo Gag substitutions during early HIV-1 subtype C infection. Virology. 2011 Oct 17

Parekh, N., Ribaudo, H., Souda, S., Chen, J., Mmalane, M., Powis, K., Essex, M., Makhema, J., Shapiro, R.L. Risk factors for very preterm delivery and delivery of very-small-for-gestational-age infants among HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants in Botswana. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Jul 16

Powis, K.M., Smeaton, L., Ogwu, A., Lockman, S. Dryden-Peterson, S., van Widenfelt, E., Leidner, J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on longitudinal growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana. JAIDS. 2011

Powis, K.M., Kitch, D., Ogwu, A., Hughes, M.D., Lockman, S., Leidner, J., van Widenfelt, E., Moffat, C., Moyo, S., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery Among HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Protease Versus Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based HAART During Pregnancy. J Infect Dis. 2011 Aug

Rossenkhan, R., Novitsky, V., Sebunya, T.K., Leidner, J., Hagan, J.E., Moyo, S., Smeaton, L., Lockman, S., Musonda, R., Ndung’u, T., Gaseitsiwe, S., Thior, I., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Shapiro, R. Infant Feeding Practices were not Associated with Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA Levels in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana. AIDS Behav. 2011 Sep 7

Wester, C.W., Koethe, J.R., Shepherd, B.E., Stinnette, S.E., Rebeiro, P.F., Kipp, A..M., Hong, H., Bussmann, H., Gaolathe, T., McGowan, C.C., Sterling, T.R., Marlink, R.G Non-AIDS Defining Events Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy In Urban Settings in Sub-Saharan Africa and the United States. AIDS. Jul 2011

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2010
Celum, C., Wald, A., Lingappa, J.R., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Baeten, J.M., Mullins, J.I., Hughes, J.P., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyn, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Stevens, W., Campbell, M.S., Thomas, K.K., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W.L.H., McElrath, M.J., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., and Corey, L., for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010

Chen, J.Y., Ogwu, A.C., Svab, P., Lockman, S., Moffat, H.J., Gaolathe, T., Moilwa, S., Størdal, K., Dryden-Peterson, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women with Low CD4+ Cell Counts in Gaborone, Botswana. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2010

Do NT, Phiri K, Bussmann H, Gaolathe T, Marlink RG, Wester CW. Psychosocial factors affecting medication adherence among HIV-1 infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Jun

Kebaabetswe, P., Ndase, P., Mujugira, A., Sekoto, T., Ntshimane, M., Owor, A., Makhema, J., Thior, I., and Essex, M. Perceptions of couple HIV counseling and testing in Botswana: A stakeholder analysis. Patient Educ. Couns. 2010

Lingappa., J.R., Baeten, J.M., Wald, A., Hughes, J.P., Thomas, K.T., Mujugira, A., Mugo, N., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Steward, G.J., Makehma, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyen, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Kidoguchi, L., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., Corey, L., and Celum, C. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet. 2010

Lingappa, J.R., Hughes, J.P., Wang, R.S., Baeten, J.M., Celum, C., Gray, G.E., Stevens, W., Donnell, D., Campbell, M.S., Farquhar, C., Essex, M., Mullins, J.I., Coombs, R.W., Rees, H., Corey, L., and Wald, A. for the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk. PLoS One. 2010

Lockman, S., Hughes, M.D., McIntyre, J., Zheng, Y., Chipato, T., Conradie, F., Sawe, F., Asmelash, A., Hosseinipour, M.C., Mohapi, L., Stringer, E., Mngqibisa, R., Siika, A., Atwine, D., Hakim, J., Shaffer, D., Kanyama, C., Wools-Kaloustian, K., Salata, R.A., Hogg, E., Alston-Smith, B., Walawander, A., Purcelle-Smith, E., Eshleman, S., Rooney, J., Rahim, S., Mellors, J.W., Schooley, R.T., Currier, J.S.; OCTANE A5208 Study Team. Antiretroviral therapies in women after single-dose nevirapine exposure. N Engl J Med. Oct 14 2010

MacLeod, I.J., Rowley, C.F., Essex, M., and Lockman, S. Minor Resistant Variants in Nevirapine-Exposed Infants May Predict Virologic Failure on Nevirapine-Containing ART. J. Clin. Virol. 2010

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Bussmann, H., Lockman, S., Baum, M., Shapiro, R., Thior, I., Wester, C., Wester, C.W., Ogwu, A., Asmelash, A., Musonda, R., Campa, A., Moyo, S., van Widenfelt, E., Mine, M., Moffat, C., Mmalane, M., Makhema, J., Marlink, R., Gilbert, P., Seage, G.R. 3rd, DeGruttola, V., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission. PloS One. 2010

Plank, R.M., Makhema, J., Kebaabetswe, P., Hussein, F., Leseidi, C., Halperinm D., Bassil, B., Shapiro, R., Lockman, S. Acceptability of infant male circumcision as part of HIV prevention and male reporductive health efforts in Gaborone, Botswana, and surrounding areas. AIDS Behav. Oct 2010

Shapiro, R., Hughes, M., Ogwu, A., Kitch, D., Lockman, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Moyo, S., Thior, I., McIntosh, K., van Widenfelt, E., Leidner, J., Powis, K., Asmelash, A., Tumbare, E., Zwerski, S., Sharma, U., Handelsman, E., Mburu, K., Jayeoba, O., Moko, E., Souda, S., Lubega, E., Akhtar, M., Wester, C., Snowden, W., Martinez-Tristani, M., Mazhani, L., Essex, M. Antiretroviral Regimens in Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2010

Wester, C.W., Thomas, A.M., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Makhema, J.M., Gaolathe, T.,Novitsky, V., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor outcomes among combination antiretroviral therapy-treated adults in Botswana. AIDS. Suppl 2010

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2009
Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Thomas, A., Novitsky, V., Okezie, R., Muzenda, T., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Mawoko, N., Widenfelt, E., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Mine, M., Makhema, J., Moffat, H., Essex, M., DeGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Response to Zidovudine/Didanosine-Containing Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Adults in Botswana: Two-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009

Chen, J.Y., Ogwu, A.C., Svab, P., Lockman, S., Moffat, H.J., Gaolathe, T., Moilwa, S., Størdal, K., Dryden-Peterson, S., Moffat, C., Makhema, J., Essex, M., and Shapiro, R.L. Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women with Low CD4+ Cell Counts in Gaborone, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Epub 27 October 2009

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaolathe, T., Avalos, A., Cloutier, S., Ndwapi, N., Holcroft, C., Moffat., H., Dickinson, D., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A., Mine, M. Five-year follow up of genotypic resistance patterns in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana after failure of thymidine analogue-based regimens. J. of International AIDS Society. 2009

Lingappa, J.R., Kahle E., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Magaret, A., Baeten, J., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were E., Fife K., deBruyn, G., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W., Corey, L., Wald, A., and Celum, C., for the Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study Team. Characteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners Study. PLoS ONE. 2009

Novitsky, V., Lagakos, S., Herzig, M., Bonney, C., Kebaabetswe, L, Rossenkhan, R., Nkwe, D., Margolin, L., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Evolution of Proviral gp120 over the First Year of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. Virology. 2009

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Margolin, L., Baca, J., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Nkwe, D., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Timing Constraints of in Vivo Gag Mutations during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 2009

Novitsky, V., Wang, R., Kebaabetswe, L., Greenwald, J., Rossenkhan, R., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., Woldegabriel, E., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Better Control of Early Viral Replication Is Associated with Slower Rate of Elicited Antiviral Antibodies in the Detuned EIA during Primary HIV-1C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2009

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Kebaabetswe, L., Rossenkhan, R., Mlotshwa, B., Bonney, C., Herzig, M., Finucane, M., Musonda, R., Moyo, S., Wester, C., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Dynamics in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2009

Mine, M., Bedi, K., Maruta, T., Madziva, D., Tau, M., Zana, T., Gaolathe, T., Moyo, S., Seipone, K., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., and Marlink, R. Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load in Plasma Using Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay at a District Hospital Laboratory in Botswana: A Decentralization Pilot Study. J. Virol. Methods. 2009

Rossenkhan, R., Ndung’u, T., Sebunya, T., Hagan, J., Shapiro, R., Novitsky, V., Moyo, S.M., Thior, I., Lockman, S., Mitchell, R., Kim, S., Musonda, R., van Widenfelt, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Temporal Reduction of HIV Type 1 Viral Load in Breast Milk by Single-Dose Nevirapine during Prevention of MTCT. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2009

Shapiro, R.L., Smeaton, L., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Rossenkahn, R., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Moffat, C., Arimi, P., Ndase, P., Asmelash, A., Leidner, J., Novitsky, V., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. Risk Factors for Early and Late Transmission of HIV via Breast-Feeding among Infants Born to HIV-Infected Women in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Botswana. J. Infect. Dis. 2009

Shipton, L.K., Wester, C.W., Stock, S., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Thior, I., Avalos, A., Moffat, H.J., Mboya J.J., Widenfelt, E., Essex, M., Hughes, M.D., and Shapiro, R.L. Safety and Efficacy of Nevirapine and Efavarinz-Based Antiretroviral Treatment in Adults Treated for TB-HIV Co-Infection in Botswana. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2009

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Koethe, J., Moffat, C., Vermund, S., Essex, M., and Marlink, R.G. Adult Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana and Future Challenges. HIV Ther. 2009

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2008
Bae, W.H., Wester, C., Smeaton, L.M., Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Onyait, K., Thior, I., Essex, M. Hematologic and hepatic toxicities associated with antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy among infants. AIDS. Aug 20 2008

Bussmann C, Rotz P, Ndwapi N, Baxter D, Bussmann H, Wester CW, Ncube P, Avalos A, Mine M, Mabe E, Burns P, Cardiello P, Makhema J, Marlink R. Strengthening healthcare capacity through a responsive, country-specific, training standard: the KITSO AIDS training program’s support of Botswana’s national antiretroviral therapy rollout. Open AIDS J. 2008 Feb 29

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Ndwapi, N., Grundmann, N., Gaolathe, T., Puvimanasinghe, J., Avalos, A., Mine, M., Seipone, K., Essex, M., deGruttola, V., and Marlink, R.G. Five-Year Outcomes of Initial Patients Treated in Botswana’s National Antiretroviral Treatment Program. AIDS. 2008

Novitsky, V., Woldegabriel, E., Wester, C., McDonald, E., Rossenkhan, R., Ketunuti, M., Makhema, J., Seage, G.R. 3rd, Essex, M. Identification of primary HIV-1C infection in Botswana. AIDS Care. Aug 2008

Rowley, C.F., Boutwell, C.L., Lockman, S., Essex, M. Improvement in allele-specific PCR assay with the use of polymorphism-specific primers for the analysis of minor variant drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol MethodsApr 2008

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2007
Boutwell, C., and Essex, M. Identification of Class I HLA-Associated Amino Acid Polymorphisms in the HIV-1C Proteome. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2007

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Wester, C.N., Lekoko, B., Okezie, O., Thomas, A.M., DeGruttola, S.M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Marlink, R.G. Pregnancy rates and birth outcomes among women on efavirenz-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Jul 1 007

Lockman, S., Shapiro, R.L., Smeaton, L.M., Wester, C., Thior, I., Stevens, L., Chand, F., Makhema, J., Moffat, C., Asmelash, A., Ndase, P., Arimi, P., van Widenfelt, E., Mazhani, L., Novitsky, V., Lagakos, S., and Essex, M. Response to Antiretroviral Therapy after a Single, Peripartum Dose of Nevirapine. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007

Novitsky, V., Wester, C. W., De Gruttola, V., Bussmann, H., Gaseitsiwe, S., Thomas, A., Moyo, S., Musonda, R., van Widenfelt, E., Marlink, R. G., and Essex, M. The Reverse Transcriptase 67N 70R 215Y Genotype Is the Predominant TAM Pathway Associated with Virologic Failure among HIV Type 1C-Infected Adults Treated with ZDV/ddI-Containing HAART in Southern Africa. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2007

Novitsky, V., Gaolathe, T., Woldegabriel, E., Makhema, J., and Essex, M. A Seronegative Case of HIV-1 Subtype C Infection in Botswana. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2007

Redd, A.D., Avalos, A., and Essex, M. Infection of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells by HIV-1 Subtype C, and Its Association with Anemia in Southern Africa. Blood. 2007

Redd, A.D., Avalos, A., Phiri, K., Essex, M. Effects of HIV type 1 infection on hematopoiesis in Botswana. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. Aug 2007

Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Kim, S., Smeaton, L., Rahkola, J.T., Thior, I., Wester, C., Moffat, C., Arimi, P., Ndase, P., Asmelash, A., Stevens, L., Montano, M., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Janoff, E.N. Infant morbidity, mortality, and breast milk immunologic profiles among breast-feeding HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana. J Infect Dis. Aug 15 2007

Thior, I., Gabaitiri, L., Grimes, J., Shapiro, R., Lockman, S., Kim, S., Kebaabetswe, P., Garmey, E., Montano, M., Peter, T., Chang, S.Y., Marlink, R., and Essex M. Voluntary Counseling and Testing among Post-Partum Women in Botswana. Patient Educ. Couns. 2007

Wester, C.W., Okezie, O.A., Thomas, A.M., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Muzenda, T., Makhema, J., van Widenfelt, E., Musonda, R., Novitsky, V., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., Kuritzkes, D.R., DeGruttola, V., Marlink, R.G. Higher-than-expected rates of lactic acidosis among highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated women in Botswana: preliminary results from a large randomized clinical trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Nov 1 2007

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2006
Brenner, B.G., Oliveira, M., Doualla-Bell, F., Moisi, D.D., Ntemgwa, M., Frankel, F., Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. HIV-1 Subtype C Viruses Rapidly Develop K65R Resistance to Tenofovir in Cell Culture. AIDS. 2006

Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Ndwapi, N., Vanderwarker, C., Gaolathe, T., Tirelo, G., Avalos, A., Moffat, H., Marlink, R.G. Hybrid data capture for monitoring patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban Botswana. Bull World Health Organ. Feb 2006

Doualla-Bell, F., Avalos, A., Brenner, B., Gaolathe, T., Mine, M., Gaseitsiwe, S., Oliveira, M., Moisi, D., Ndwapi, N., Moffat, H., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A. High prevalence of the K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C isolates from infected patients in Botswana treated with didanosine-based regimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Dec 2006

Doualla-Bell, F., Avalos, A., Gaolathe, T., Mine, M, Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndwapi, N., Novtisky, V., Brenner, B., Oliveira, M., Moisi, D., Moffat, H., Thior, I, Essex, M., and Wainberg, M.A. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C on drug resistance mutations in patients from Botswana failing a nelfinavir-containing regimen. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2006

Montano, M., Rarick, M., Sebastiani, P., Brinkmann, P., Russell, M., Navis, A., Wester, C., Thior, I., Essex, M. Gene-expression profiling of HIV-1 infection and perinatal transmission in Botswana. Genes Immun. Jun 2006

Ndung’u, T., Sepako, E., McLane, M.F., Chand, F., Bedi, K., Gaseitsiwe, S., Doualla-Bell, F., Peter, T., Thior, I., Moyo, S.M., Gilbert, P., Novitsky, V.A., and Essex, M. HIV-1 Subtype C In Vitro Growth and Coreceptor Utilization. Virology. 2006

Nkolola, J.P., and Essex, M. Progress Towards an HIV-1 Subtype C Vaccine. Vaccine.  2006

Novitsky, V., Gilbert, P., Shea, K., McLane, M.F., Rybak, N., Klein, I., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Interactive Association of Proviral Load and IFN-Secreting T Cell Responses in HIV-1C Infection. Virology. 2006

Shapiro, R.L., Thior, I., Gilbert, P.B., Lockman, S., Wester, C., Smeaton, L.M., Stevens, L., Heymann, S.J., Ndung’u, T., Gaseitsiwe, S., Novitsky, V., Makhema, J., Lagakos, S., Essex, M. Maternal single-dose nevirapine versus placebo as part of an antiretroviral strategy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana. AIDS. Jun 12 2006

Thior, I., Lockman, S., Smeaton, L.M., Shapiro, R.L., Wester, C., Heymann, S.J., Gilbert, P.B., Stevens, L., Peter, T., Kim, S., van Widenfelt, E., Moffat, C., Ndase, P., Arimi, P., Kebaabetswe, P., Mazonde, P., Makhema, J., McIntosh, K., Novitsky, V., Lee, T.H., Marlink, R., Lagakos, S., Essex, M; Mashi Study Team. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana: a randomized trial: the Mashi Study. JAMA. Aug 16 2006

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Moyo, S., Avalos, A., Gaolathe, T., Ndwapi, N., Essex, M., MacGregor, R.R., Marlink, R.G. Serological evidence of HIV-associated infection among HIV-1-infected adults in Botswana. Clin Infect Dis. Dec 15 2006

Wolfe, W.R., Weiser, S.D., Bangsberg, D.R., Thior, I., Makhema, J.M., Dickinson, D.B., Mompati, K.F., Marlink, R.G. Effects of HIV-related stigma among an early sample of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. AIDS Care. Nov 2006

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2005
Bussmann, H., Novitsky, V., Wester, W., Peter, T., Masupu, K., Gabaitiri, L., Kim, S., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndungú, T., Marlink, R., Thior, I., Essex, M. HIV-1 subtype C drug-resistance background among ARV-naive adults in Botswana. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005

Gilbert, P.B., Novitsky, V., and Essex, M. Covariability of Selected Amino Acid Positions for HIV Type 1 Subtypes C and B. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2005

Ndung’u, T,, Gaseitsiwe, S., Sepako, E., Doualla-Bell, F., Peter, T., Kim, S., Thior, I., Novitsky, V.A., Essex, M. Major histocompatibility complex class II (HLA-DRB and -DQB) allele frequencies in Botswana: association with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Sep 2005

Shapiro, R.L., Holland, D.T., Capparelli, E., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Peter, T., Essex, M., Connor, J.D., Mirochnick, M. Antiretroviral concentrations in breast-feeding infants of women in Botswana receiving antiretroviral treatment. J Infect Dis. Sep 1 2005

Shapiro, R.L., Ndung’u, T., Lockman, S., Smeaton, L.M., Thior, I., Wester, C., Stevens, L., Sebetso, G., Gaseitsiwe, S., Peter, T., Essex, M. Highly active antiretroviral therapy started during pregnancy or postpartum suppresses HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk. J Infect Dis Sep 1 2005

Wester, C.W., Bussmann, H., Avalos, A., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Cardiello, P., Bussmann, C., Moffat, H., Mazonde, P., Marlink, R.G. Establishment of a public antiretroviral treatment clinic for adults in urban Botswana: lessons learned. Clin Infect Dis. Apr 1 2005

Wester, C.W., Kim, S., Bussmann, H., Avalos, A., Ndwapi, N., Peter, T.F., Gaolathe, T., Mujugira, A., Busang, L., Vanderwarker, C., Cardiello, P., Johnson, O., Thior, I., Mazonde, P., Moffat, H., Essex, M., Marlink, R. Initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1C-infected adults in a public sector treatment program in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Nov 2005

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2004
Bussmann, H., Wester, C.W., Masupu, K.V., Peter, T., Gaolekwe, S.M., Kim, S., Reich, AM., Ahn, S., Wu, Y., Thior, I., Essex, M., Marlink, R. Low CD4+ T-lymphocyte values in human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults in Botswana. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Sep 2004

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndung’u, T., Modukanele, M., Peter, T., Novitsky, V., Ndwapi, N., Tendani, G., Avalos, A., Wester, W., Bussmann, H., Cardiello, P., Marlink, R., Moffat, H., Thior, I., Wainberg, M.A., Essex, M. Mutations and polymorphisms associated with antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1C-infected African patients. Antivir Chem Chemother. Jul 2004

Doualla-Bell, F., Gaseitsiwe, S., Ndung’u, T., Modukanele, M., Peter, T., Novitsky, V., Ndwapi, N., Gaolathe, T., Avalos, A., Wester, W., Bussmann, H., Cardiello, P., Marlink, R., Moffatt, H., Thior, I., Wainberg, M.A., and Essex, M. Mutations and Polymorphisms Associated with Antiretroviral Drugs in HIV-1C-Infected African Patients. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 2004

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2003
Kebaabetswe, P., Lockman, S., Mogwe, S., Mandevu, R., Thior, I., Essex, M., Shapiro, R.L. Male circumcision: an acceptable strategy for HIV prevention in Botswana. Sex Transm Infect. Jun 2003

Lockman, S., Hone, N., Kenyon, T.A., Mwasekaga, M., Villauthapillai, M., Creek, T., Zell, E., Kirby, A., Thacker, W.L., Talkington, D., Moura, I.N., Binkin, N.J., Clay, L., Tappero, J.W. Etiology of pulmonary infections in predominantly HIV-infected adults with suspected tuberculosis, Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Aug 2003

Loemba, H., Brenner, B., Parniak, M.A., Ma’ayan, S., Spira, B., Moisi, D., Oliveira, M., Detorio, M., Essex, M., Wainberg, M.A. Polymorphisms of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and T-helper epitopes within reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV-1 subtype C from Ethiopia and Botswana following selection of antiretroviral drug resistance. Antiviral Res. Nov 2003

Montano, M., Russell, M., Gilbert, P., Thior, I., Lockman, S., Shapiro, R., Chang, S.Y., Lee, T.H., Essex, M. Comparative prediction of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission, using multiple virus load markers. J Infect Dis. Aug 1 2003

Novitsky, V., Gilbert, P., Peter, T., McLane, M.F., Gaolekwe, S., Rybak, N., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Association between Virus-Specific CTL Responses and Plasma Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Infection. J. Virol. 2003

Shapiro, R.L., Lockman, S., Thior, I., Stocking, L., Kebaabetswe, P., Wester, C., Peter, T., Marlink, R., Essex, M., Heymann, S.J. Low adherence to recommended infant feeding strategies among HIV-infected women: results from the pilot phase of a randomized trial to prevent mother-to-child transmission in Botswana. AIDS Educ Prev. Jun 2003

Quan, Y., Brenner, B., Marlink, R., Essex, M., Kurimura, T., and Wainberg, M. Drug Resistance Profiles of Recombinant Reverse Transcriptases from HIV-1 Subtypes A/E, B, and C. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2003

Weiser, S., Wolfe, W., Bangsberg, D., Thior, I., Gilbert, P., Makhema, J., Kebaabetswe, P., Dickenson, D., Mompati, K., Essex, M., Marlink, R. Barriers to antiretroviral adherence for patients living with HIV infection and AIDS in Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Nov 2003

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2002
Kenyon, T.A., Creek, T., Laserson, K., Makhoa, M., Chimidza, N., Mwasekaga, M., Tappero, J., Lockman, S., Moeti, T., Binkin, N. Risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Oct 2002

Novitsky, V., Cao, H., Rybak, N., Gilbert, P., McLane, M.F., Gaolekwe, S., Peter, T., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Magnitude and Frequency of CTL Responses: Identification of Immunodominant Regions in HIV-1 Subtype C. J. Virol. 2002

Novitsky, V., Smith, U.R., Gilbert, P., McLane, M.F., Chigwedere, P., Williamson, C., Ndung’u, T., Klein, I., Chang, S.Y., Peter, T., Thior, I., Foley, B.T., Gaolekwe, S., Rybak, N., Gaseitsiwe, S., Vannberg, F., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Phylogeny: Consensus Sequence for an AIDS Vaccine Design? J. Virol. 2002

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2001
Ndung’u, T., Lu, Y., Renjifo, B., Touzjian, N., Kushner, N., Pena-Cruz, V., Novitsky, V., Lee, T.H., and Essex, M. An Infectious Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C from an African Isolate: Rhesus Macaque Model. J. Virol. 2001

Ndung’u, T., Renjifo, B., and Essex, M. Construction and Analysis of an Infectious Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Molecular Clone. J. Virol. 2001

Novitsky V, Flores-Villanueva PO, Chigwedere P, Gaolekwe S, Bussman H, Sebetso G, Marlink R, Yunis EJ, Essex M. Identification of most frequent HLA class I antigen specificities in Botswana: relevance for HIV vaccine design. Hum Immunol. Feb 2001

Novitsky, V., Rybak, N., McLane, M.F., Gilbert, P., Chigwedere, P., Klein, I., Gaolekwe, S., Chang, S.Y., Peter, T., Thior, I., Ndung’u, T., Vannberg, F., Foley, B.T., Marlink, R., Lee, T.H., and Essex M. Identification of HIV-1C Gag-, Tat-, Rev-, and Nef-specific Elispot-based CTL Responses for AIDS Vaccine Design. J. Virol. 2001

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2000
Montano, M.A., Nixon, C.P., Ndung’u, T., Bussmann, H., Novitsky, V.A., Dickman, D., Essex, M. Elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C in Southern Africa is associated with an NF-kappaB enhancer gain-of-function. J Infect Dis. Jan 2000

Ndung’u, T., Renjifo, B., Novitsky, V.A., McLane, M.F., Gaolekwe, S., Essex, M. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of full-length HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana. Virology. Dec 20 2000

Novitsky, V.A., Gaolekwe, S., McLane, M.F., Ndung’u, T.P., Foley, B.T., Vannberg, F., Marlink, R., and Essex, M. HIV-1 A/J Recombinant with a Pronounced pol Gene Mosaicism. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2000

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1999
Novitsky, V.A., Montano, M.A., McLane, M.F., Renjifo, B., Vannberg, F., Foley, B.T., Ndung’u, T.P., Rahman, M., Makhema, M.J., Marlink, R., Essex, M. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C: a set of 23 full-length clones from Botswana. J Virol. May 999