Study Objectives: To assess the virologic responses of women and infants to nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatment after previous exposure to a single dose of nevirapine or placebo in the setting of a short course of zidovudine.

Study Design: prospective observational study nested within a randomized clinical trial

Study Population: Postpartum women living with HIV

Sponsor: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Study Findings

Women who received a single dose of nevirapine to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV-1 had higher rates of virologic failure with subsequent nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy than did women without previous exposure to nevirapine. However, this applied only when nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy was initiated within 6 months after receipt of a single, peripartum dose of nevirapine.